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What Is Timocracy?

To define timocracy, it is nothing but a form of government. Here only property owners can participate in the government activities and formation.

Timocracy – A Medieval Government

The timocracy government was defined and formed during the era of Aristotle. In the Aristotle’s era it is a state where the property owners will handle the day to day affairs of the government and people’s affairs. Of course, there is a more extreme form of timocracy. It is where the power is derived from the wealth irrespective of the social and civic responsibility. Also, it might shift in terms of the form and sometimes become plutocracy where the wealthy people rule.

Timocracy – An Unjust Government

In the Republic, Plato often talks about the basic five regimes. Among them four are the most unjust. Timocracy is termed as the first unjust regime. Why? Well, Aristocracy often degenerates timocracy when there is a miscalculation in the part of the governed class.

In addition, the next generation of auxiliaries and guardians consists of people of inferior nature (here it means individuals having souls made of bronze or iron which is opposed to the auxiliaries and guardians whose soul is made of silver and gold).

Choosing A Leader In Timocracy

In timocracy, selecting leaders is inclining rather to a high simple minded and spirited type. Here they are more suited for war. Frankly, the city-state of the Sparta gave Plato with the original world model for such a kind of government. Some of the modern observers feel and describe Sparta as one-party or totalitarian state.

However, the details of this kind of society is exclusively from the enemies of Sparta. The basic idea of something like a militarism kind of stratocracy reflects the basic and fundamental values that the Spartan society followed. Now monarchy, communism, democracy, and socialism are the most common as well as popular form of government. However, not many people know a lot about them.

History Of Timocracy

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Keep in mind that there are a various kind of government which are theoretical. Of course, some of them have not happened yet and even chances of them ever happening is nil. Now certain theoretical governments are just controlled by people who have developed the civilization’s tech. While others are controlled by researchers and scientist who are governing the technology that they have built.

In this regard, timocracy is created by those individuals who have or are the owners of wealth and land. They often rule due to honor or ambition. The timocracy kind of government was just an idea. This was conceived by the Athenian ruler Solon somewhere in the 6th century BC. He created timocracy and gave powers to rulers into his own timocracy.

As per hierarchy, there are four tiers inside the civilization’s population. For example, if you are a manual laborer, you were considered to be the member of the ‘thethes’ tier of the timocracy. Here the thetes are considered to be the lowest rung of the ladder and they won’t get to be elected to the office. But just being a member of the poorest class had one major benefit that most Americans would like. These people never paid any taxes.

Now the next tier present in the ladder is called as the zeugitae. They were nothing but tillers of the land. Frankly, their class was defined in few different manner, and all of it was very much applicable. For being a member of this tier, one needs to be at least a proud owner of the pair of pack animals. Also, one needs to produce at least about two hundred bushels of produce each year (this was the major requirement).

Even though you end up paying taxes, still you could hold minor offices which no one in the higher tiers would ever want. In addition, you can even purchase armor, making it easy for the zeugitae to serve in armies as hoplites.

Now if you are producing only about hundred more of barrels each year, say about three hundred, then you are considered to be the member of the knight class or the hippies. Here you would be able to get weapons and armor along with cavalry all due to the extra money. Frankly, members of this tier would get huge amount of respect and be able to hold offices just above the ladder (higher the ladder).

Conclusion

Now even though democracy won’t suggest having a tier system with regard to the amount of wealth and property you have in exchange for the government qualification. The chances of getting office will simply increase if you have both in the timocracy government.…

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What is Oligarchy?

Oligarchy is a form of power structure found in businesses and political organizations. In this structure few people control everything while the majority are condescended upon and are not in any way participant to the spoils and profits, but may rest upon on the belief that they are being noticed and given to rare service or help as and when people at the top in such power structure thinks it as their duty to do so. Here, there is a sharp contrast between the rights of the power among the many with that of the superimposed self styled dictatorial mindset of the few that would never allow their power to be infringed upon in anyway.

Most oligarchies from the past were from noble classes and were famed for being snobbish in their deals with that of lesser ranked people at the bottom. Apart from noble class, oligarchies are found among organizations due to their wealth, education, religious, military and political control. Many such power structures are often controlled by families with younger generation of the family line taking on the reign in due course. These people may be either capable or lack willingness at administration yet they remain in power for the very reason that they have inherited power and influence from their previous generation. These people may even think that it is their birthright to cling to power and very often are tyrannical in their behaviors.

Oppression of the Majority

Most oligarchies function with the single minded pursuit of class division at the bottom levels of political, social, business or religious organizations. They refuse to rectify existing rules that have always been to their favor and may even oppress anyone trying to do so or even influencing others into doing so. They are quick to point out through their own behaviors to lesser folks that are in majority at the bottom that it is for their own interest and good of the organization, country or social order to remain in absolute obedience. This power structure has often been considered by philosophers, writers and other social scientists as the very reason why some groups of people holding on to power seldom allows the individual, social and other basic human rights to those at the lower rungs of the ladder.

According to experts it has been seen that although oppression may be the password of oligarchs yet some people in the masses tend to find this to be quite all right too. They feel that there are less chances of anarchy to happen when the power to yield is in few hands only. They also feel that power having been concentrated in a few hands may act as deterrent to those that may feel like creating pockets of inconsistencies and confusion in order to make another oligarchic power structure on their own.

People at lower bottom may think that since power rests on a few they may find relative comfort zone in their own social, business or religious circles while larger issues pertaining to society may be handled by the oligarchs. Yet, people on the top may have less interest in taking risky ventures that may benefit the masses or employees of an organization on the whole. They seldom need to face new challenges and competition and remain conservative. This obviously lessens the spirit of the majority as well as lack of newer ground breaking ideas whether in businesses, politics or social orders.

Power and Wealth in Few Hands

It is quite obvious as you may find throughout history that oligarchies have a distinction of gathering wealth that only rests on those at the top of the power ladder. In sharp contrast, the masses always remain poor and lack basic amenities of life. Even though they may aspire to be wealthy they hardly lack the chance as the oligarchs would never allow this to come true.

This is because the elite always control all policies and hold legislative powers. In business oligarchy they try to influence the political class with their money and gifts making it immensely tougher for others to get into their competitive line. As such with businesses too coming under the control of few, there will be less diversity and even lesser risk taking initiative on part of businesses. Further, they may even damage other businesses so as to thwart competition and destroy the chances of newer products from appearing in the market. They do this by controlling prices of their products as well as restricting economical access to raw materials and by hindering supply demand functions.

However, oligarchs may not be all that bad for creative people as they may easily find their projects funded as well given a chance of bringing out new ideas. They allow this as they feel that in the end it would support their own goals although they may still find in difficult to accept new ideas detrimental to their own interest brought before them.

Oligarchical Business Practices

Some industries and specific companies within them have been accused of maintaining oligarchical structures within their businesses. The tech industry has been a target of many as a sector in which the balance of power and profit has not been distributed. Specifically in video gaming and adult tech related companies suspicions have arised. This was an early criticism of backpage before its alternatives like bedpage, free sexfinder, and others rose in popularity. Specific gaming companies have come under scrutiny for their practices and structures as well. …

A Look at How Different Governments Have Approached the Covid-19 Pandemic

People are aware of the devastating effect of the covid-19 Pandemic. India has encountered more covid-19 cases in the past eight days than any part of the world. It’s not a surprise anymore to the people of India and around the world that the death toll is higher than the actual official numbers.

Indian authority faced a perplexing situation with the outcome of the decision made on social distancing and lockdown. India was struck not only on the economy, but the death tolls turned out to be a shocking one. However, the environment improved all over the country.

Brief Introduction on the Covid-19 Virus

The first reported case of covid-19 was from Wuhan, China, in late 2019. Wuhan market is known for selling wildlife animals and also endangered animals. World Health Organization declared an eruption of the Covid-19 on January 30, 2020. The root cause behind the Covid-19 is the virus called SARS-CoV-2(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2).

With over 1.3 billion and the second-largest globally after China, India concentrates on the rural-based. It is also gravely suffering from COVID-19. Vast numbers of the population died not from the Covid-19 virus but due to lack of unemployment, loss of jobs, business shutdown, and mental collapse.  

Highlights on Different Government Approaches 

Patient with Covid-19 virus suffers from cough, fatigue, sore throat, struggling to breathe, fever. Thus, differentiating this deadly disease from chronic respiratory infections is painfully challenging. 

No successful anti-viral and vaccine were available last year, but India’s death toll was comparatively less than 2021. India’s death rates increase drastically even after the vaccine was available. As Reported, the covid-19 spread like wildfire after the religious gathering at Kumbh Mela at Haridwar, 2021. European Countries and the United States of America tackle the covid-19 maturely and efficiently post 2020. 

The total number of death tolls in the world is 35,11,931 as of May 26, 2021. India accounts for 3,15000 death tolls out of the complete counts and stands at the third-highest death rates. USA casualties stand at the top of 5,92,000, and Brazil stands at the second most death rate in the world with several 4,54000. 

As soon as the first report wave of covid-19 came up, the Government from all over the world instructed basic guidelines. Regular washing of hands using hand sanitizer, which is alcohol-based or liquid soap, avoids touching eyes, nose, and nose mouth, maintaining social distancing. 

To impede the spread, the Government all over the world closed down physical classes to online teaching. Public spaces like swimming pools, sports stadiums, parks, theatres, auditoriums, cinema halls, museums, libraries are closed. Restricted religious gatherings, funerals, and marriages were from 20 to 50 people or 30 percent capacity of the place.

Most countries have strict regulations to fly across other countries to stop the spread of the virus. All the governments across India have put strict laws on the entry and exit road routes after the second wave hit India. 

Indian Government started Covid-19 vaccinations to all above 18 years and above on May 1. As reported, there is a shortage of vaccines for a population like India. Uttarakhand government faced heavy criticism from across the world for permitting Hindu religious festivals Kumbh Mela amidst sharply worsening covid-19 cases. Post Kumbh Mela saw hospitals shortage of beds, drugs, oxygen. Short of oxygen cylinders at the hospitals open opportunities to the black market resulted in paying four times the actual amount of the oxygen cylinder. 

The nation to tackle the covid-19 virus most effectively is Israel. Israel vaccinated almost the entire population and made it a mask-free country. 

As reported, Serum Institute of India Ltd. And Bharat Biotech Ltd are manufacturing two vaccines such as Oxford and AstraZeneca’s Covishield. India also urges assistance from Russia for Sputnik 5. 

India also invites vaccines such as Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson for an emergency.
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What Is a Parliamentary System in Government?

As citizens of our own country, we often tend to read or learn about our home country’s type of government. In most odd cases, we are ignorant of any other kind of government functional in other countries. This article here will help you acquaint yourself with the basics of a Parliamentary System in a Government.

Here is a brief outline of what to expect from this article:

  • What is a Parliament?
  • How does a Parliamentary System form in a Government? 
  • What makes up a Parliamentary System in Government?
  • Elections in a Parliamentary system Government

What is a Parliament?

Oxford dictionary describes Parliament as “the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country.” The other name of the Parliamentary System is Parliamentary democracy.

The requisite of any modern democracy is a Government. A legislative body comprising of government is what makes up the Parliament in modern-day history. 

How does a Parliamentary System form in a Government? 

In a Parliamentary type of government, a national election is the only way to select the members of the Parliament. 
The members of the Parliament are members of the winning party. Any political party that wins the highest number of winning seats forms the government. 

In some cases, if two political parties have equal votes, there can be a coalition. The coalition of which can be of two or more political parties. Whichever of the two – a single or coalition party wins the majority of seats becomes the ruling party. 

One important point to remember is that, in a parliamentary system of government, the ruling political party holds the real power and not an individual. 

What makes up a Parliamentary System in Government?

  • Head of State

Traditionally, the Prime Minister takes the post of the head of the government. The Prime Minister of any country takes the title of being the head of the country.

He/she is a member and usually the most potent contender/leader of the winning or coalition political party. The ruling party makes the appointment of the Prime Minister after a unanimous vote. The ruling party here is not to be confused; it is none other than the winning party.

In contrast, some countries follow a constitutional monarch, particularly evident in the United Kingdom. Here, the Monarch takes the role of titular head of the State. The elected members of the Parliament have to swear an oath towards loyalty to the Monarch. In addition, the Monarch has the authority to dissolve a government. 

Some other countries, such as Africa, have a republican government. Here, the leader of the government is not the Prime Minister. Instead, the President serves as head of State as well as the leader of the government. 

  • Legislation

The primary function of a Parliament is to make, decide and approve laws for the country. Any legislative proposals proceed to the Parliament in the form of Bills. 

For the Bills to pass as a law, it requires the approval of the Parliament’s legislation. Most countries with a parliamentary system in a government have two houses for legislation. The legislators of the Parliament take place in a House. 

Most countries follow a bicameral house system, meaning it has an Upper House and a Lower House. In the bicameral house, the passing of the law requires the approval of both the Upper and Lower house. Although, in the end, Parliament has a more significant say for passing any bill.

The upper house in a bicameral parliament consists of fewer members. In the UK, the House of the Lords makes up the upper house. In the US, the upper house is the Senate. Some countries have a unicameral house, meaning a single house.

  • Cabinet

While the legislation is the cumulative responsibility of the Parliament, there are everyday matters that need attention and focus. For which the head of State appoints cabinet ministers. These cabinet ministers take charge and overlook the issues and functions of separate departments. 

Elections in a Parliamentary system Government

In a Parliamentary system Government, elections take place at routine intervals. The most common time frame between elections ranges from four to five years. However, in some countries, the Prime Minister has the authority to dissolve a Parliament. If that happens, the Prime Minister can hold a proposed election before the routine time.

In addition, a Parliament can remove a ruling Prime Minister during its tenure at the post. The dissolving of a government can take place through a “no confidence” vote by the Parliament legislature. In such cases, new elections occur for the re-election of the Head of State/Prime Minister. Of course there has been controversy in this regard, one such instance being when an elected official was caught on a free milf dating app attempting to find an extramarital affair. However, there are many such cases in which a no confidence vote has been threatened, but never actually enacted. Either way the mechanism allows for a balance of power in theory.…

Benefits of A PoliSci Undergraduate Degree

The Undergraduate (UG) Degree marks the entry of a student into the Professional world. The career path is now chosen, “es jacta est” (“the die is cast”), as Julius Caesar once declared. But some special subjects remain, which still allow the novitiate to beat an independent path. Political Science is one such General Subject, from which the young professional is invited to spread wings to many professions. Political Science as a subject is defined as the study of governance at all levels, which are national, state and local. Political Scientists look at government of countries throughout the world, official government institutions and policies, and investigate the politics that go into the making of those policies. Individual psychology and family structure, issues of race, gender and social class are all studied with a view to throwing light on the Science of Politics in the Real World. Though Management is often a prime target for holders of the Political Science UG Degree, there are so many more routes to the top that this subject opens up that the Benefits of a Political Science Undergraduate Degree need to be focused on, however briefly, as we do below.

The Benefits

Some of the Benefits of a Political Science Undergraduate Degree are presented below:

  • One of the basic Benefits of majoring in Political Science at the UG level is that it offers a liberal arts education and training in critical thinking. This hones the student’s ability for informed judgment, and imparts a broad understanding of human values and condition. This is the hallmark of the truly educated and competent human being, and the functionality of a true citizen.
  • Political Science is the subject to major in to prepare for Law school, Government Service or a political career.
  • Some of the subjects in the course, such as personnel management and budgeting practices, are essential for preparation in public and private sector employments.
  • Political Science also includes the sub-fields of Comparitive Government and International Relations, it is the mainstream route to jobs in the International fields and in World bodies and Global Institutions.
  • Large Businesses whose work or interests takes them abroad, and MNC’s who have roots worldwide, make Employers whose decisions take account of global community relations and international political considerations often need to hire professionals with Political Science majors in UG level.
  • Of course, an initial start at UG level in Political Science can lead to a secondary teaching career.
  • A variety of social and political research careers are also open to the Graduates in Political Science at UG level.
  • Most Political Science UG courses cater to both the domestic as well as the International policy and politics. There is a wide variety of courses on offer at the Universities and Colleges worldwide under the major of Political Science, and these courses are often set up with flexible requirements in order to allow students to design a major portion of their own programs, particularly in the Liberal and Democratic Countries.
  • A bachelor’s degree in Political Science prepares graduates for entry level jobs in Political Science. This may include employment in the Business Sector as a Consultant, or direct entry level jobs as Administrative Assistants, or even in the Government of a particular country.
  • With a Masters degree in Political Science in addition to the UG level, graduates can also work in Education. They can teach at College (or High School) , specializing in Government, Civics or Social sciences.
  • Research is also a fine option for those with a highly academic bent of mind, who want to pursue in this vein, with both Doctorates and Masters degrees on offer at the top Universities. This of course requires that the student must have excellent academic records throughout, and be desirous of continuing in this specialization throughout the working life or career. Many fine Professors in a vast area of specialization come from the bedrock of Political Science UG education.
  • Political Scientists apply their graduate level learning to keen analysis of political and general data, with the objective of tracking political developments, and creating suitable political responses. They are therefore in great demand for providing their expert opinions through their writings and commentary.
  • In the capacity of Political Commentators and Writers, Political Scientists may be utilized by Politicians and Political Parties of all colors to present their views in cogent fashion, or even to prepare policy papers for presentation to the voting public.
  • The Media, in particular the Internet and the Social Media, as well as the News Network, always keep a sharp eye out for interesting views by Political Commentators, most of whom have an UG background in Political Science.
  • Thus, the Political Science UG finds the options for a top-class career are unbelievable.

Why Study Political Science?

Political is a fascinating ever evolving area of study that has challenged the worlds great minds throughout history. This video from Duke University Department of Political Science does a great in depth job of explaining the value in studying and majoring in political science. Check it out:

What is Political Science?

Political science is about governance, government affairs, comparative analysis of different political theories and political decisions. Political science is a wide concept that can vary from state to state while the basic nature of the study remains the same. A level-wise political science is known as state politics, national politics and international politics involving different countries. Each level has its laws and strategies for decisions made in politics. The principles for different subdivisions of political science are taught differently. A method of teaching may vary depending on a teacher or college. Many famous methods like psychology, positivisms, cognitive neuroscience and behaviorism are very effective for students to know complex behaviorism among the politicians. These analyzations help in understanding the past political situation and improves the present political matters. The need for applying basic morals combing the complex situations with a need to go beyond the morals are taught in detail by excellent teachers who are passionate about political science.

Another famous method of teaching is through enormous examples. Examples of a simple voting system to passing a bill that has been rejected for 10 years. Every example is discussed in detail with the positive side effects and negative side effects of a decision. This kind of information and knowledge cannot be found in newspapers, mobile phones or anywhere. Being a political science-literate broadens a person’s perspective in the view of the community, state, and nation. It is believed that Aristotle first quoted political science, which at that time didn’t seem like an actual thing. Since the 1800’s the demand for lawyers and politicians increased. Political science became much in demand. Having a political science graduate in a team, is much-added value to the team. Even the campaign management team is a political scientist on a team to analyze the statistics and predict the probability with every step. This type of precise evaluation is used by many other political scientists like journalists who don’t tend to be on any side but give valued facts which they obtained from statistics of the election or political behavior.

Impact:

A person with knowledge about political science has added value to their analysis and decisions related to politics. It varies from the position of the person in the government or company. Having a strong knowledge decreases the chance of a mislead decision based on the outer facts. Outer facts are the way how politics can look in the eye of the public. a few careers with political science graduation are public administration, political adviser, political scientist, consulting and many more.

International political science is growing popular among the young generation. Many students are eager to know about political behavior in other countries and how a certain international political decision can affect their own country. Growing global companies are hiring international political advisers where they have legal obligations at times regarding their products or services. Top universities in the world are opening up to the sub-divided political science subjects at a graduation level, allowing learners to concentrate on one field. In the end, creating an impact depends entirely on the individual.…